• PI3K/Akt/mTOR

    PI3K Akt mTOR is a classic insulin signaling pathway.PI3K (phosphatidylinositol kinase)is a dimer composed of regulatory subunit p85 and catalytic subunit P110. When combined with growth factor receptor(such as EGFR),Akt can change its protein structure and activate it,and activate or inhibit a series of downstream substrates such as apoptosis related proteins bad and caspase9 by phosphorylation,so as to regulate cell proliferation,differentiation,apoptosis and migration.

  • Epigenetics

    Epigenetic drugs mainly target abnormal DNA methylation and histone modification. Potential drugs include DNA methyltransferase inhibitors,lysine demethylase inhibitors,protein methyltransferase inhibitors,histone deacetylase inhibitors, histone acetyltransferase inhibitors,bromine domain containing protein inhibitors and methylated histone binding protein inhibitors.

  • Protein Tyrosine Kinase

    PTK plays an important role in intracellular signal transduction and is closely related to the growth,proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of tumor cells

  • Angiogenesis

    Angiogenesis inhibitors are classified into endostatin and angiostatin. Endostatin is the C-terminal fragment of collagen X Ⅷ,which can specifically inhibit the proliferation of endothelial cells and promote apoptosis;inhibit angiogenesis factors such as VEGF and bFGF and their biological effects. Angiostatin:38 Ku plasma fibrinolytic enzyme can selectively inhibit the proliferation of endothelial cells.Thrombospondin-1(TSP-1)can inhibit angiogenesis induced by VEGF or bFGF in a concentration dependent manner by interacting with cell matrix.

  • Apoptosis

    Apoptosis (apptosis) or programmed cell death(PCD)is an active cell death process controlled by Pb gene in order to regulate the development of organism and maintain the stability of internal environment.Extracellular stimulation to induce apoptosis must be transmitted through a series of intracellular signals, which leads to selective DNA fragmentation between nucleosomes.

  • Autophagy

    Autophinib is an effective and selective autophagy inhibitor.For starvation and rapamycin induced autophagy,IC50 values are 90 nm and 40 nm,respectively. Autophinib is also an ATP competitive vps34 inhibitor with IC50 of 19 nm. Autophinib inhibits starvation or rapamycin induced autophagy by targeting vps34.


    JAK/STAT is a key signaling pathway in MPNs,which promotes the rapid development of JAK2 small molecule inhibitors(jaki)in the treatment of MPNs.

  • MAPK

    MAPKs signaling pathways cooperate with other pathways to regulate the renewal or differentiation of neural stem cells, embryonic stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells.MAPK is closely related to many targets,including MEK,RAF,p38 MAPK,ERK and JNK.

  • Cytoskeletal Signaling

    Cytoskeleton is a filamentous network composed of F-actin,microtubule and intermediate filament(IFS),which is composed of actin,microtubule or one of several if proteins.Cytoskeleton is involved in intracellular signal transduction in at least two ways.First,a single protein in the cytoskeleton may directly participate in signal transduction by connecting two or more signaling proteins.Second,the cytoskeleton may provide a macromolecular scaffold for spatially organizing components of the signal transduction cascade.

  • Cell Cycle

    G1 phase cell cycle inhibitor and selective protein synthesis inhibitor.Induces apoptosis in vitro.Inhibits eukaryotic cell growth.Antitumor,antifungal and bone resorption agent.Active in vitro and in vivo.

  • TGF-beta/Smad

    TβRII activates t β RI kinase activity through phosphorylation of t β RI, and then transmits signal in cells through phosphorylation of Smad transcription factor.TGF-βis also involved in the regulation of PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways.Abnormalities of transforming growth factor beta receptors and Smads have been found in a variety of tumors,including colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer.In addition,TGF-β/BMP signal transduction is also involved in osteoblast differentiation,chondrocyte differentiation,bone development, chondrogenesis,bone formation and bone homeostasis.

  • DNA Damage/DNA Repa

    DNA damage refers to the change of cellular DNA structure caused by physical or chemical pollution factors in the environment. DNA damage repair refers to the structural recovery of DNA molecules in biological cells after being damaged. It is the result of a variety of enzymes in the body cells.

  • Stem Cells & wWnt

    Wnt signaling pathway includes many proteins that can regulate the synthesis of Wnt signaling molecules.They interact with receptors on target cells.The physiological response of target cells comes from the interaction between cells and extracellular Wnt ligands.

  • Neuronal Signaling

    Neuronal Signaling is involved in the regulation of the mechanics of the central nervous system such as its structure,function,genetics and physiology as well as how this can be applied to understand diseases of the nervous system.Every information processing system in the CNS is composed of neurons and glia,neurons have evolved unique capabilities for intracellular signaling (communication within the cell) and intercellular signaling (communication between cells).

  • NF-KB

    NF-κB plays a key role in regulating immune response to infection.NF-κB is also involved in synaptic plasticity and memory.There are five proteins in mammalian NF-κB family:NF-κB1,NF-κB2,rela,RelB and c-Rel.

  • GPCR & G Protein

    G protein coupled receptors(GPCRs)are a large class of membrane protein receptors.So far,only G protein coupled receptors have been found in eukaryotes. They are involved in many cellular signal transduction processes.In these processes,GPCR can bind to chemicals in the surrounding environment of cells and activate a series of signaling pathways in cells,eventually leading to changes in the state of cells.

  • Endocrinology & Hormones

    Neuroendocrine inhibitors can alleviate the symptoms of heart failure,improve the prognosis,and reduce the mortality,which confirms the correctness of the basic research results of heart failure:the basic mechanism of heart failure is myocardial remodeling,which originates from the overexcitation of sympathetic nervous system and RAS.

  • Metabolism

    Metabolism is a collection of life sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. Metabolism is the general term for the chemical reactions of life support. These reactions enable organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structure, and respond to the environment.

  • Membrane Transporters

    Membrane transporters are defined as membrane transporters that are embedded in lipid bilayers of biomembranes and transfer ions and small molecules to these biomembranes.Several membrane transporters are involved in the resistance of tumor cells to anticancer drugs.Generally,membrane transporters mediate ions and small molecules across plasma and intracellular membranes,such as mitochondria, lysosomes and vesicles.

  • Inhibitor customization

    Inhibitors are also called retarders.A substance that retards or reduces the rate of a chemical reaction has the same effect as a negative catalyst.It doesn not stop the polymerization,it just slows it down.

  • Ubiquitin

    Ubiquitin signaling pathways include thalidomide,wp1130 (degrasyn),bay 11-7821, usp7-in-1 and dubs-in-3.

  • Microbiology

    Microbiology inhibitors include efavirenz,nevirapine,zalcitabine,emtricitabine and abacavir sulfate,and a series of nucleoside and non nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors.

  • Proteases

    Proteasome is the main degradation pathway of misfolded proteins and other proteins in protein synthesis.

  • Transmembrane Transporters

    The transmembrane transport of drugs can be divided into passive transport and active transport:passive transport of small molecular substances from high concentration to low concentration is the simplest transmembrane transport, which belongs to the diffusion transport of drug molecules,so it is concentration gradient transport,without energy consumption,no saturation and no competitive inhibition except facilitation transport,Therefore,it does not depend on the concentration difference between the two sides of the membrane, has saturation and competitive inhibition.The transport of small molecular substances from low concentration to high concentration,such as mineral ions, glucose in and out of other cells except red blood cells,requires energy and carrier protein.